Training Principles, Part Nine - Nutrition & Supplementation 101 Con’t

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Nutrition Con’t

d) Fats - consist of all oils from flesh, nuts, and plants including: butter, margarine, mayonnaise, vegetables, borage oil, flaxseed oil, CLA oil, GLA oil, beef, chicken, fish, lamb, egg yolk, turkey, and pork, and vitamins A, D, E, and K. Intake may be between 15-30% of total food intake, 1 gram of fat = 9 calories. Intake should be .3 gm (.4 gm if under 10/14 % body fat for males/females) per lb of body weight. So a 150 lb person take 45 gm per day and a 200 lb person 60 gm per day. The exemption to this is supplementation with omega 3 fish oil. We recommend taking 5-35 grams of omega–3 fatty acid such as Krill, salmon, omega 3, GLA, CLA, EPA, DHA, or EFA daily.


·      Eat lean choices of beef, pork, chicken, and lamb (cut off and discard extra fat)

·      Dietary fats are essential to the body and help to carry the fat-soluble vitamins.

·      Fats provide energy.

·      Fats surround and protect certain organs (heart, kidney, and liver).

·      Essential fatty acids help the liver to transport and breakdown fat and cholesterol.

·      Essential fatty acid help fat loss.

·      Essential fatty acid such as DHA help cognitive or brain function.

·      Essential fatty acid such as EPA help reduce inflammation and promote a healthy heart.

·      Choose monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, peanut oil, or oil with instead of trans-fats.

·      See vitamin function of A, D, E, and K.

e) Vitamins - consists of A, B, C, D, E, and K and are found in the foods that we eat, except D, which is also produced in the body with the help of sunlight. We recommend taking a daily multivitamin supplement to assist in your training.


·      Vitamin A found in fish oils and converted from carrots (carotene) helps tissue growth and repair, RNA production, and protects certain membranes from infection.

·      Vitamin B found in vegetables and animal tissue they help provide the body with energy, convert carbohydrates into glucose, metabolize fats and proteins, and aid in nervous system function and nerve health.

·      Vitamin C found in fruits and vegetables helps to heal tissue, form red blood cells, fight infections, reduce allergic reactions, maintains connective tissue, replenishes adrenaline, and protects vitamins B, A, and E against oxidation.

·      Vitamin D found in animal tissue, plant tissue, and fish-liver oils, and is produced in the body by exposure to sunlight, helps in the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus, the development of bone and teeth , and nervous system function.

·      Vitamin E found in whole raw seeds, nuts, soybean, and cold-pressed vegetable oils, helps prevent vitamin A and other fatty acids from breaking down with other substances into harmful toxins, protects tissue, cells, and certain vitamins from aging, oxidation, and destruction. Enhances the endurance of heart, lung, and muscle cells.

·      Vitamin K manufactured in the intestines with the presence of certain milk related bacteria and in kelp, alfalfa, green vegetables, yogurt, egg yolks, fish-liver oils, safflower oil, and blackstrap molasses, helps blood to clot, carbohydrates to be stored in the body, and the liver to function normal.

f) Minerals - consist of calcium, chlorine, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, chromium, iron, selenium, vanadium, etc…There are at least17 essential minerals that the body needs. Some are found in the body and others in foods. We recommend taking a daily multi mineral supplement.


·      Minerals are necessary for many mental and physical abilities.

·      Minerals are in bone, teeth, tissue, muscle, blood, and nerves.

·      Minerals assist in brain, heart, and nervous system functions as well as the building of bones and allowing physiological aspects to occur for athletics and everyday movement activities.

·      Minerals enhance muscle response, transmit messages and assist in the nervous, digestive, metabolic, hormonal, and endocrine systems. They also help in the utilization of nutrients from food.

·      Minerals help maintain water balance throughout the body and blood and tissue ph balance.

 Nutritional Summary-Recommendations:

1.    Daily water intake should be between 75-140 fl oz depending on your body weight and climate conditions.

2.    Daily protein intake should consists of a variety: beef, buffalo, chicken, exotic meats, fish, lamb, lean pork, shellfish, turkey, etc, and be between 150-400 gm depending on your body weight and goals.

3.    Daily carbohydrate intake should consists of mostly vegetables, especially leafy and green ones but reds and yellows also and some nuts and fruits, mostly low glycemic ones depending on your composition and may be consumed freely with little restriction if consumed without heavy sauces and oils.

4.    Take a daily multi-vitamin/mineral supplement.

5.    Take a daily multi-mineral.

6.    Take a omega-3 fatty acid supplement and vitamin D3 supplement.

7.    Take the post workout shake or meal – it is extremely important for muscle and strength development, recovery, and hormonal balance, which may be in supplement form for optimal absorption. Try to limit protein/carbohydrate supplement to the post workout meal.

8.    Learn to eat a variety of real foods, the proper type, time, amount, and portion, 4-8 meals per day.

9.    Protein-amino acid supplementation may be used during certain circumstances, meals, during workouts, or after workouts.


  1. Paul Chek– “The Golf Biomechanics Manual”; “Scientific Back Training”;
  2. Charlie Francis – “Training for Speed”.
  3. Jurgen Hartmann and Harold Tunnemann –“Fitness and Training for All Sports”.
  4. Michael Leahy – “Active Release Techniques Soft Tissue Management System”.
  5. Richard Magill – “Motor Learning Concepts and Applications”.
  6. Charles Poliquin – “Modern Trends in Strength training”; “The Poliquin Principles”; “Manly Weight    Loss”; “Winning the Arms Race”.
  7. Mark Guthrie - “Coaching Track & Field Successfully”.
  8. Jonny Bowden - “living the Low Carb Life”.     
  9. Mario DiPasquale - “The Anabolic Solution”; “The Metabolic Diet”.   
  10. Harvey Newton - “Explosive Lifting for Sports”.    
  11. Steven Fleck & William Kraemer - “The Ultimate Training System - Periodization Breakthrough!”     
  12. Bill Phillips - “Sports Supplement Review”.                                                                     

‘Train Safe, Smart, & Results Driven’

Maximizing Metabolic Function With Strength & Structure

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, MT

After years of personal experience, observational relevance, and just plain frustration with the overall level of Fitness & Health Nationally, I wanted to write an article about maximizing workout time. Since time seems to be a determining factor or excuse for not working out, I’d like to offer some ways to maximize it. Part of my rationale is if you can only do 10 minutes of intense exercise, 6 times a week, at the end of the year its 3,120 minutes, which is a lot more than zero! Most importantly it will help to improve your life, fitness, and health! It’s all accumulative!

For example, a most recent fitness study claims that sixty seconds of high intensity exercise is more valuable than 20-30 minutes of low intensity exercise. For decades’ trainers in the know have been advocating interval training over long sustained endurance work. I learned this in the early 80’s, training to improve my mile run time, which I ran in 6 plus minutes with minimal endurance work, to 4 & a half minutes with sprint and strength work.

One of the things that I learned was that quality training was more important that quantity training. So sprinting on the track, up hills, in the pool, on the bike, etc, improved my speed and fitness more than doing any long distance aerobic workouts. It required way less time, instead of 90-120 minutes, it took me to 15-30. So I started doing 2 shorter workouts a day, one in the early am and another midday or later, whenever I could get it in. This naturally elevated my metabolism and kept it going throughout the day!

Getting married, having a family, and business mentally got me away from that but recently I’ve decided to return to it but make it easily doable, which I’m sharing with you.

Upon rising exercise will jump start your metabolism for the day the only drawback is usually your mind and body aren’t fully awake so choosing an exercise that will help wake you up, like a cup of coffee, but without being overwhelmed is important. Structural strengthening exercises like Y raises, trap 3 raises, Petersen step ups, lying hip bridges, side arm rotations, planks, etc will serve this purpose. Just doing 3 sets of 60 seconds each will wake you up, jump start your day, and not require much time 4-6 minutes total, with 30-60 seconds rest or less between sets.

AM Workout Example:

Day 1, Lying single bent leg hip bridge with foot on the floor or elevated, 60s x 3 sets, with a 151 tempo.

Day 2, Front plank with forearms arms on top of a physioball, 60s x 3 sets, with a 60s tempo.

Day 3, Lying Y arm raise with dumbbells, 3-5lbs, 60s x 3 sets, with a 151 tempo.

Day 4, Petersen step ups, using a normal step, 60s x 3 sets each leg, with a 111 tempo.

Day 5, Lying Leg raise & hip lift, with knees slightly bent, 60s x 3 sets, with a 111 tempo.

Day 6, Lying on side, arm rotation with a dumbbell, 1-10lbs, 60s x 3 sets, with a 311 tempo.

Do as many as possible (amap) with good form, pause if necessary, then continue until 60s is up. Eventually you’ll be able to complete the 60s without pausing with good form.

Midday or afternoon workout would be at a higher intensity level, since your mind and body should be optimally active. Thus using large muscle groups or compound or multiple joint exercises should be the plan. This could include alternating a upper and a lower body exercise, like a push up or bench press with a squat, performed together in a superset fashion. Possibly doing each set for 30-60 seconds depending on your goal, completing 6-8 sets of each upper and lower body exercise. If Four exercises is used do 3-4 sets of each. This should take 15-30 minutes total, including a quick 3-4 set warm up for each. The resistance should be heavy but allowing good form, controlled tempo, and theability to complete the set.

Warm up sample: i.e., bench press, if your actual exercise weight is 200lb, then warm up set one is 100lb x 3-4 reps, set two is 125lb x 2-3 reps, set three is 150lb x 1-2, and set four is 175lb x 1-2 reps, or using approximately 50%, 62%, 75%, and 87% of your workout weight to warm up with.

PM Workout Example:

Day 1, A1-Barbell or dumbbell split squats, 30-60s each leg x 6 sets, with a 301 tempo; A2- Lying pull ups, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo.

Day 2, A1-Barbell or dumbbell Romanian deadlifts (RDL), 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 301 tempo; A2- Barbell or dumbbell bench press, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 301 tempo.

Day 3, A1-Double or single leg Physioball leg curls, 30-60s each x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo; A2-Barbell or dumbbell upright row, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo.

Day 4, A1-Barbell or dumbbell squat, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 301 tempo; A2-Chin ups, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 201 tempo.

Day 5, A1-Barbell or dumbbell or weight plate, 45 degree back extensions, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo; A2-Barbell or dumbbell seated press, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 301 tempo.

Day 6, A1-Seated or prone machine leg curls, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo; A2-Barbell or dumbbell pullover, 30-60s x 6 sets, with a 311 tempo.

The most important aspects are just doing it (aka Nike, ‘Just Do It’), consistency (doing it on a regular basis), correct form (good posture & tempo), intensity (70-90% of a 1 rep max lift), and short duration (15-30 minutes). The exercises can be performed numerous ways, upper body together, lower body together, upper & lower body together, or combining 2-4 exercises together.

  At night, before dinner if possible, stretch for 60s x 3 sets. Choose your worst or most difficult stretch a do it for 60s sets, preferably in a PNF manner, i.e., contract the muscle for 5-10 seconds, followed by a 2-3 second release and relax. Each night you can choose a different stretch or repeat the same tight one. This will offer you a complete training regime taking 25-35 minutes a day, keeping you active at least three times a day.

I hope this is helpful,

'Train Safe, Smart, & Results Driven’

Post Workout Shake Recipes

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Regular Chocolate: pour 16-32oz of milk in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of chocolate protein powder, add 4-6 cubes of ice if desired (usually will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Chocolate Plus: pour 16-32oz of milk in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of chocolate protein powder, add 3-4 scoops of favorite ice cream that goes with chocolate, i.e., cookies & cream (usually will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Vanilla: pour 16-32oz of milk in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of vanilla protein powder, add 4-6 cubes of ice if desired (usually will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Vanilla Plus: pour 16-32oz of milk in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of vanilla protein powder, add 3-4 scoops of favorite ice cream that goes with vanilla, i.e., cookies & cream (usually will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Strawberry: pour 16-32oz of water or milk in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of vanilla protein powder, add 4-8 strawberries (may be pre-frozen, will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Strawberry Plus: pour 16-32oz of fruit juice (apple or orange or mango or pineapple) in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of vanilla protein powder, add 4-8 strawberries (may be pre-frozen, will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Mixed Berry Plus: pour 16-32oz of fruit juice (apple or orange or mango or pineapple) in blender, followed by 1-1 ½ scoops of vanilla protein powder, add 1-1 ½ cups of mixed blue, black, raspberry, strawberry (may be pre-frozen, will make it thicker & colder), blend until smooth.

Healthier Shake: pour 8-18oz of water in blender, followed by 2-4oz of heavy cream, followed by 1-2 scoops of chocolate or vanilla protein powder, blend until smooth; fruit may be optional.

The protein serving size is subject to individual metabolic needs; the above recipes use 1-1 ½ scoops of whey protein which should equal approximately 24-36 grams of protein; this should suffice for most middle school males and high school females but larger more muscular individuals or those with higher metabolic needs may require more up to 2-3 scoops.

The maximal ratio of protein to carbs should be approximately 1:4 for post workout shakes to assists in post workout recovery and nutrient replacement. So if 1 scoop or 24g of protein powder is used then 96g of total carbs should be used from whole milk, almond milk, heavy cream, juice, fruit, or the total from any of the aforementioned combinations.

For example 1 cup or 8oz milk has about 12g of carbs, while 8oz of juice will have approximately 25g of carbs; 1 cup of berries is approximately 17g of carbs; check the label on the container or package to get the general idea so you develop a visual image of the amount but don’t be annul; for individuals with super slow metabolisms or that have too much body fat try reducing the ratio to 1:0 or 1:1 until body fat drops.

If your bodyfat is low or ideal feel free to experiment to come up with your own personal favorites, including substituting yogurt or ice cream and combining several of the ingredients together. Bon Appetite or Enjoy!

Recommended brands: Any that make a high quality isolate whey protein without cross contaminates such as steroids, nickel, mercury, lead, or arsinate, here are three varied high quality brands that we can recommend, they do not mix or taste the same but are extremely reputable MRM, Poliquin Performance, Douglas Klean, just google search to find. They will sell in 2lb container as well as packets.

Essential Supplements That People Don't Need, Right!

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Since I am always asked about what supplements to take by acquaintances, colleagues, family, friends, trainers, and strangers in the gym here is a list with explanation and usage of some essential supplements that just about everyone can benefit from or use. At the end of each selection I list some brands that are great or good and I’m sure much better than I see most people take. Check out my article about Favorite Brands, where I list and give my favorite brands and online suppliers. I must thank Charles Poliquin, Warren Brown, Sonja Petersen, William Wong, and Johnny Bowden as my resources for this article.

Here are 8 essential supplements that most people need even if they don't know it.

Multivitamins - should help prevent cellular oxidation, improve energy and wellness, contribute to overall health, and protect from toxins. It’s a well documented that today’s foods have the same calories and less nutrients, than they did 30-40 years ago. So it’s important to consume a multivitamin and one that’s highly absorbable or bio-available. The better multivitamins will break down, digest, and absorb in 10-30 minutes, and usually the faster the absorption, the better the quality. Which means the manufacturer used high quality ingredients and formulation methods. They will use amino acid chelates for minerals, natural carotenoids, therapeutic levels of vitamin B, natural vitamin E with a equal ratio of alpha to gamma tocopherols, genetically usable folic acid, and calcium citrate that actually builds bone. All of the nutrients should be highly absorbable, and in natural forms increase your energy after consumption. Try Multi Intense or Complete Multi by Poliquin, Life Force by Source Naturals, Beyond Basics by MRM, Preventive X by Douglas, or Total Balance by Xtend-Life.

Betain w/Pepsin - helps stomach health and repair, breaks down food, increases digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, kills bad bacteria, increases nutrient absorption and utilization, thereby increasing muscle (15-18 lb in 2 months), strength, fat metabolism, weight loss, energy, and overall health. Some symptoms of low stomach acid are: belching, bloating, or gas post meal, bad breath, meatless desire, nausea post supplements, brittle fingernails, undigested food in stool, stomach pain, desire to miss meals, estrogen increase, acne, and depression. Possibly half of the US population has a HCL deficiency. Also a deficiency of HCL decreases B12 absorption and causes accelerated brain aging, so energy and thinking decrease. Take 200-1600 mg mid-meal, with each meal depending on your need (based on HCL test). May take up to 5 years to repair. Try Digest Force or Ultra HCI by Poliquin, HCL w/Pepsin by Solaray, Essential Enzymes by Source Naturals, Digest-All by MRM, Betaine Plus by Douglas, or Betaine HCL by KAL,.

Proteolitic Enzymes - helps cells, vessels, muscles, and connective tissues reduce inflammation and eliminate excessive fibrin and scar tissue, caused by allergens, exercise, food allergies, injury, stress, toxins, and trauma. Excessive scar tissue can build up in arteries, ligaments, muscles, organs, tendons, and vessels and inhibit their ability to do their job and function, especially after early adulthood around the age of 25. Proteolytic enzymes such as bromelain, papain, serrapeptase, and trypsin, will help break down and remove only scar tissue not healthy tissue and manage inflammation over time. Another benefit is that proteoytic enzymes seem to boost or stimulate the immune system and disable certain viruses. It seems more effective to take them on a empty stomach if possible or a light fruit snack. Take 5 capsules, 3 x a day depending on the strength, and increase to 10 capsules, 3 x a day for more severe trauma, and will take 3-5 months to resolve or repair. Try Omnizyme by Poliquin, Wobenzymn by Mucos, Vitalzym by World Nutrition, or Neprinol AFD by Arthur Andrew.

Whey Protein – for muscle growth, repair, recovery, boost immune system, and promotes gastrointestinal health. The brand should be low-heat processed, contain immunoglobulins, CLA, BCAA’s, and L-Glutamine, not be denatured, and is bioavailable or readily absorbable. Take 30-80 g, post workout, in a shake with chopped up fruit, juice, milk, dextrose, or water, depending on your needs. Try Whey Stronger by Poliquin, Isobolic WPI Whey by MRM, Whey Protein Isolates by Douglas, or Ultra Pure Whey Protein by Biogenesis.

Vitamin D3 - improves bone health, brain development of babies’, blood sugar levels, neurological conditions, depression, bipolar disorder, muscle function, body fat loss, life expectancy-longevity, immune defense against cold, flu, and other infections, reduce skin problems like psoriasis, cancer risks, insulin resistance, blood pressure, prevent and/or remedy rickets, multiple sclerosis, and protect the heart, A deficiency will cause muscle and strength loss. Almost every disease and adverse health condition is associated with low vitamin D3 levels Take 5,000 iu every day to return to normal levels in 3 months or 30,000-100,000 iu, 2 x a week to return to high normal levels sooner. Try D3 Emulsion or D3 Excellence by Poliquin, Liquid D3 or Vitamin D by Douglas, D3 2,000 by Source Naturals, or D3 2500 by Jarrow Formulas.

Magnesium – Regulates heart muscle contractions, calcium absorption, muscle relaxation, increase number and sensitivity of insulin receptors, improves glucose use in elderly diabetics, increase carbohydrate tolerance, correct insulin resistance or sensitivity, reduce stress, anxiety, cortisol, and hyper-responsiveness in the sympathetic nervous system, ATP energy production, protein synthesis, DNA manufacture, fatty acid synthesis, anaerobic glycolysis, and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, A deficiency will cause muscle spasm, tremors, personality changes, nausea, increase diabetic complications, interrupt insulin secretion and activity, reduce fat loss and muscle gain. Almost 70% of population is deficient, while most well trained athletes are deficient. Absorption is increased by stomach acid or HCL. Take 200-500 mg, mid-meal with dinner and bedtime. Try Uber Mag or Poly Mag Px by Poliquin, Magnesium Citrate by KAL, Ultra-Mag or Magnesium Chelate by Source Naturals, or Amino Mag by Douglas.

Omega 3 Fish Oil - with high levels of EPA will reduce inflammation and boost immune health, while omega 3 with high levels of DHA will improve nerve function that affect brain, eye, cell membrane, and heart health and muscle function. Also DHA will lower resting heart rate, cortisol levels, and body fat. Take 1-10 g, mid-meal with each meal, depending on your need. Try EFA Complete Px or EFA-DHA 720 or Omega 3 6:1 or Opti EFA or Uber Omega 3 by Poliquin, Omega 3/DHA by Xtend-Life, Smart Blend by MRM, Super Omega 3 or The Finest Fish Oil by Carlson, Pro Omega or Ultimate Omega by Nordic Naturals, Coromega Orange Flavor by Coromega, Omega 3 Fish Oil by KAL, or Krill Oil Neptune by Source Naturals.

Zinc - Aids in wound and burn healing, digestion, metabolism of protein and carbohydrates, and prostate gland functions. A deficiency will cause a loss of taste, poor appetite, fatigue, slow growth, insulin resistance, low HCL levels due to stress, and low testosterone. Take 50-75 mg, mid-meal at dinner and bedtime. Try Uber Zinc by Poliquin, Zinc 100+ Chelated by KAL, Zinc Amino Acid Chelates or Opti Zinc by Source Naturals, or Opti Zinc by Douglas.

Again I hope that this information is useful, which means that it’s used!

Part One, Insulin, It’s Role and It’s Consequences

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Insulin is such an important hormone in regulating our daily health, mood, weight, and body composition. It’s so important that it takes five other hormones to keep it in check or balanced. It’s no wonder that in my original Biosignature course maybe a third of the lecture centered on insulin and it’s function, affects on health, body composition, and modulators. Insulin and sugar are like accomplishes or weird best friends, that can be bad or good depending on the sensitivity and resistance of the relationship. In this Part, One of Four, I will explain insulin’s role and consequence when things go wrong. Since insulin is a hormone let’s first take a look at their definitions.

What Is a Hormone?
Hormone is a chemical made in the body that controls or regulates the function of an organ or cell or bodily process. Hormones are made by special glands, such as the adrenal, hypothalmus, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroid, pineal, pituitary, testes, thymus, and thyroid that make up the endocrine system. In addition, endocrine related organs or tissues like the kidney, liver, placenta, skin, small intestines, and stomach produce vital hormones as well. Hormones are necessary for every bodily function, such as digestion, metabolism, growth, reproduction, mood, nerve transmission, etc,

What Is Insulin?
Insulin is a protein hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas that monitors sugar/glucose levels in the blood, then transports and stores it, or builds up protein. It’s the only hormone that prevents high blood sugar. Whereas there are at least five hormones such as glucagon, cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and growth hormone (hgh), that help prevent low blood sugar. Insulin is the catalyst that bridges the relationship among these compounds.

Insulin works directly with the liver to help balance and control blood sugar levels and energy use. Insulin is necessary to sustain life, but too much and too often, and it can cause problems and wreck havoc on health. I will explain insulin’s role when things are ideal and the consequences when things go wrong.

Insulin’s Role

The primary role of insulin is to transport or store sugar or glucose. During digestion carbs are converted to a usable sugar such as glucose and released in the blood. Insulin transports the glucose to the brain and muscle cells for fuel to think or exercise. Equally important, insulin transports glucose to the liver and stores it for emergencies, when blood glucose levels drop too low. The pancreas releases the hormone glucagon for the liver to do this. Both the muscles and liver can store glucose as glycogen in their cells for energy. Insulin will transport extra glucose to fat cells to be stored as fatty acids or triglycerides for energy as well. Besides having a role in fatty acid formation insulin can have a role in protein formation also. Excess liver glycogen will be converted to triglycerides and released back into the blood.

Insulin also stores magnesium in cells, which is essential for heart health and nearly 300 other metabolic functions, including cell energy production. So if cells become resistant to insulin magnesium can’t be stored in the required cell like the heart or muscles. Magnesium helps to relax heart artery walls and muscles, so without it those vessels constrict, blood pressure elevates, heartbeat disrupts, and arrhythmia results.

The proper response to insulin is to be insulin sensitive. Insulin sensitive means that the muscle cells accept glucose from insulin, stores it, and uses it as energy, thereby making room for additional glucose to continue the cycle. So the muscle receptors are sensitive or receptive to insulin’s effort to receive, store, and utilize glucose.

Insulin’s Consequences

Insulin Resistance is when the muscle cells stop accepting sugar from insulin, they eventually become resistant to insulin’s efforts but the fat cells will accept the sugar in the form of converted fat. So the fat cells get bigger and you do to! Extra fat and triglycerides in the fat cells will produce more ldl (bad cholesterol). The pancreas keeps putting out insulin to lower the high blood sugar levels and the cycle continues, more fat cells, triglycerides, cholesterol, ldl, increased heart disease, exhausted pancreas, increased resistance, and type II diabetes.

As stated, when insulin can’t store glucose in the muscles or liver it circulates in the blood resulting in bad health by becoming fatty acids & triglycerides, causing insulin resistance, and fat gain. If this cycle continually repeats itself, over time the proper mechanisms began to erode, shut down, and stop working. This leads to additional health problems such as heart disease, hypertension, inflammatory diseases, type II diabetes, and increased cancer risk.

Another role that insulin plays is to help put and keep fat in fat cells. By doing this it will actually prevent fat burning. In addition, insulin prevents fat burning by inhibiting the amino acid carnitine, which is responsible for putting fatty acids into muscle cells. Once there, it can be used as energy through exercise. So by blocking carnitine, fat can’t be channeled from fat cells to muscle cells to be burned and eliminated. Consequently, by reducing insulin levels, fat can actually be released from fat cells, transferred into muscle cells, metabolized, and burned.

Similarly, if insulin levels become too high or too prevalent as a result of constant carb intake, high blood glucose levels ensue, triggering the production of cholesterol. Cholesterol may combine with triglycerides to form very low-density lipoproteins (vldl), which become low-density lipoproteins (ldl) or bad cholesterol. LDL becomes damaged thru oxidation or by glycation (attaching to sticky sugar), resulting in plaque formation. Prolong insulin circulation will also lead to artery wall thickness, growth, stiffness, and inflammation. All of which, enables plaque formation, restricts blood flow, and increases blood pressure.

Furthermore, increased insulin levels raise blood pressure by signaling the kidneys to retain extra salt. By retaining more salt the kidneys will have to retain more water as well, thereby increasing blood volume and blood pressure. High levels of insulin will eventually raise adrenaline levels, which will also raise heart rate and blood pressure.

In summary, insulin’s job to control blood glucose level is vital. Without insulin our bodies could not last very long, and would succumb to metabolic acidosis, coma, and eventual death.  On the other hand, prolong insulin levels will result in increases in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids, fat cell saturation, ldl, ldl glycation, plaque, artery thickness, inflammation, blood pressure, hypertension, heart rate, heart disease, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cancer risks. By learning to control insulin you can greatly improve your health.

As a side-note fat consumption does not cause an increase in cholesterol production because fat doesn’t trigger an insulin response, only carbs do. Without excess blood insulin there is no catalyst for cholesterol, triglyceride, or ldl formation. So lower sugar consumption means lower cholesterol and triglyceride formation!

Next Part Two, Sugar, Friend Or Foe?


Book References

  1. BioSignature Modulation, 2010 & 2012, Charles Poliquin, Ms
  2. Living The Low Carg Life, Jonny Bowden, MA, CNS
  3. Protein Power, Michael Eades, MD; Mary Eades, MD
  4. The Schwarzbein Principle, Diana Schwarzbein, MD
  5. The Zone, Barry Sears, PHD
  6. The South Beach Diet, Arthur Agatston, MD
  7. The Fat Flush Plan, Ann Louise Gittleman, MS, CNS
  8. Your Fat Can Make You Thin, Calvin Ezrin, MD; Kristin Caron, MA
  9. The Paleo Diet, Loren Cordain, PHD
  10. Neanderthin: Eat Like A caveman, Ray Audette
  11. Physiology Of Exercise, Herbert A. DeVries, PHD
  12. Fitness and Strength Training, Jurgen Hartmann, PHD; Peter Klavora, PHD
  13. Essentials Of Strength and Conditioning, Thomas Baechle, EDD
  14. Bioenergetics, Michael Stone, PHD; Michael Conley, MS
  15. Noeuroendocrine Response To Resistance Exercise, William Kraemer, PHD

Part Two: Sugar, Friend or Foe?

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Recently sugar has been under attack by some leading doctors like Dr. Robert Lustig, a California endocrinologist, considered a pioneer in the study of sugar, and Kimber Stanhope nutritional biologist at the University of California–Davis who thinks that sugar is as addictive and destructive as any powerful drug. This may explain why it’s so difficult to sever ties with it. Besides, as young kids growing up we loved visiting the local neighborhood store that had all sorts of goodies–candy, soda, cookies, cup cakes, cereal, bubble gum, pixie sticks, and all of the great chips and treats. Even Halloween was a green light to sugar over dose but back then we could run around and play until we burned most or all of it off.

It’s interesting that sugar replaced fat, after we were told for decades that fat was unhealthy and would cause heart disease, obesity, and many other health issues. As fat was removed from foods, sugar became the sneaky replacement. In spite of being supposedly better informed, we have become more fat, more diabetic, more heart diseased, more pharmaceutical dependent, more at risk, and more confused than ever.

The average American consumes 150 to 180 pounds of sugar annually. It’s not a surprise that America leads the world in obesity, at 31%, and being overweight, with 73% of the population. By the way, Korea has the lowest obesity rate at 3%. Don’t feel bad because the rest of the world is catching up, especially as we export more Coke, Pepsi, McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, etc.

Let’s take a look at why sugar was a friend but over the past decades has become a foe.

What Is Sugar?

Sugar is a compound that comes from various plants, like sugar cane, sugar beet, fruit, syrup, molasses, corn, and it tastes sweet. After sugar is refined it is used as a crystal, powder, or liquid to sweeten. Sugar is a carbohydrate, just like a starch, fruit, vegetable, or bread, just sweeter. Carbohydrates are converted to sugar/glucose where it is transported and/or stored in the blood, tissue, and cells and used as energy or fuel. There are many types of sugar such as dextrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose.

Sugar does have a purpose–to supply energy to the muscles and brain, and to be used by the liver as an emergency back up source to raise low blood sugar levels. So let me emphasize this again, sugar is an energy source for muscles and the brain but used as a emergency provider by the liver when blood sugar levels are low. If sugar can’t be used as fuel it is converted into a fatty acid or triglyceride or trans-fat and stored as fat in fat cells.

Sugar is good if you exercise or burn it off but extra sugar is bad if you are inactive and consume more than is necessary. Although, considering how inactive society has become over the past decades, unless you work out, you probably don’t need much sugar. Up to 80% of sugar is stored in muscles, so intense training or laborious work would help to utilize muscle glycogen.

Three things the liver does with sugar/glucose:

  1. Passes it thru and back into the bloodstream.
  2. Stores it, turn it into glycogen (store it in the liver, muscles, and brain).
  3. Uses it to make fatty acids or triglycerides.

Six Reasons Why Sugar Is Bad

First, excess sugar is sticky and will stick to protein molecules, making them too large so that they become ineffective. These large sugar-proteins, called glycated, are too big to pass through small blood vessels and capillaries that lead to essential organs, tissues, and body parts, especially the eyes, feet, brain, and kidneys. These new glycated-proteins can’t provide the nutrients or catalyst to help those body parts perform properly. Which in turn, they become toxic, fail, or shut down, leading to premature aging, blindness, nerve damage, dementia, or poor immune health.

Secondly and similarly, sticky sugar attaches to the LDL bad cholesterol, making them glycated LDL, thereby damaging and turning them into plaque. Plaque can and will stick to the artery walls to further damage, thicken, narrow, and restrict them.

Thirdly, sugar is a risk factor for cancer cells, since they thrive on glucose. Cancer cells use glucose to grow via glucose receptor cites attached to the cell. Harvard Medical School researchers linked possible high levels of galactose (a sugar byproduct of lactose) with ovarian cancer.

Fourthly, sugar depresses the immune system by making the blood very acidic thereby inhibiting white blood cell ability to work productively at destroying bad bacteria.

Fifthly, sugar has no nutrients, so it uses up certain mineral reserves to metabolize itself causing mineral imbalance and mineral depletion, like chromium, which is needed for insulin function, and magnesium that is essential for heart and muscle health.

Finally, sugar reduces good HDL cholesterol, which helps to combat bad LDL cholesterol, thereby increasing heart disease risk factors.

CBS’ 60 Minutes did a amazing segment on sugar back in April 1, 2012, with correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta, interviewing the aforementioned Dr. Robert Lustig, a California endocrinologist, considered a pioneer in the study of sugar, and Kimber Stanhope, a nutritional biologist at the University of California–Davis, and Harvard Researcher Lewis Kantly. Here is the link

Next Part Three, How Good Carbs, Proteins, Fats, & Exercise Promote Health.

Part Three, Good Carbs, Proteins, Fats, & Health

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

Through Lifestyle changes you can reduce and even reverse much of the ill health effects that are rampant today. Things like insulin resistance, type II diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, etc, that were caused by our bad habits, can be vastly improved if not resolved. But it will require lifestyle and habit changes to control your insulin response and levels.

By lowering your bad carb and sugar consumption, while increasing good proteins and fats, and of course exercise, this can be done! If you don’t believe the growing amount of substantiated research, or doctors coming on board like Dr Mark Houston, of The Hypertension Institute of Nashville, TN, or their patient results, then just look around. Look at the increased girths and size of the general population, and the rise in heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, over the past two-three decades. Yes, since we started eating low fat and high carb foods we have gotten fatter and less healthy.

In addition, by including regular, progressive, intense, and varied exercise the mechanisms that help control insulin and sugar will be supported and aided. Especially, considering the majority of blood sugar is suppose to be stored in muscle cells (80%) and used as fuel. If you don’t exercise then you don’t make room for new blood sugar exchange and the body has no choice but to convert and store it as fat.

Before the past hundred years of human existence, people where continuously active and work was exercise. Now most people will sit or lay most of the day which has profound effects on metabolism and energy utilization. Along with poorer food choices due to convenience, processed, and refined foods we have promoted bad health, medical and pharmaceutical dependency. Since proteins are considered an essential food and nutrient, and there’s something called essential fatty acids (good fats) let’s start there.

What Is Protein?

Protein is a nitrogen based organic compound that consist of large or long chain amino acid molecules, that are found in foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, rice, and beans or anything that fly’s, swims, runs, and walks. Protein’s are essential for all living organisms, and is a catalyst for energy, metabolism, cells, enzymes, antibodies, transport, storage, and considered the building block of the body for structures including, muscle, hair, collagen, skin, and cells.

There are over 500 identified amino acids and they are the second most abundant substance in the human body after water. There are 22 standard amino acids, 9 of which have to come from an external dietary source to be synthesized into major biological functions. Protein yields 4 calories of energy per gram of weight.

During digestion proteins increase metabolic rate more then other foods by way of enzyme and heat production, called thermo-genesis. Besides thermo-genesis proteins help weight loss through hormonal responses that help with insulin control and appetite sensation.

What Is Fat?

Fat is a organic compound that consist of esters of glycerol (a compound produced by the reaction between acid and alcohol that eliminates water) and fatty acids that form an oily soft, semisoft, or solid substance, stored in the body. Fat is a major source of fuel and energy and is vital for brain, nerve, heart, muscle, metabolic, health, and vessel function. Fat yields almost 9 calories of energy per gram of weight, thus supplying the most fuel per gram.

There are several types of stored body fat, for instance brown fat is active and helps to burn calories and to keep you warm. White fat is more abundant, helps store energy, and produces hormones that are secreted into the blood stream. Small fat cells produce the hormone adiponectin, which makes the liver and muscles sensitive to insulin. Subcutaneous fat is found under the skin and is what we associate visually as being fat, and can be felt by pinching the skin together. Visceral or “deep” fat wraps around the inner organs and is linked to bad health issues such as dementia, diabetes, heart disease, insulin resistance, and stroke.

Essential fats (essential fatty acids or EFA’s) are good fats that have t be consumed, because they cannot be synthesized in the body, and are required for optimal health. EFAs support cardiovascular, cell, nerve, and skin health, brain function and development, and many other benefits. Every human cell has a receptor site for EFA’s, specifically omega 3’s. Examples of essential fatty acids are coconut oil, cold-water fish, dark leafy green vegetables, grass-feed beef, hemp, nuts, olive oil, and seeds.

What Is a Carbohydrate?

Carbohydrate (carb) is a large group of organic compounds that contain carbon, with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1). Carbs are broken down into sugar and released as energy in the body. Carbs include sugars, starch, and cellulose from plants. During digestion carbohydrates from vegetables, fruit, starches, grains, pasta, deserts, candy, juice, soda, etc, are either absorbed or converted into a sugar like glucose that’s more usable in the body.

In chemistry carbohydrates are classified as saccharides (monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide), with monosaccharides and disaccharides being smaller or simple sugars like glucose and sucrose. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are considered larger or complex sugars like glycogen. Carbs yield 4 calories of energy per gram of weight. Since carbs contain sugar they have a direct effect on insulin response with the exception of low glycemic carbs.

Low glycemic carbs have less effect on blood sugar levels and insulin response than high glycemic ones. Carbs effect on blood sugar level can be measured by, a glycemic index, which measures rate of sugar absorption, a glycemic load, which measures total sugar absorption, and a insulin index, which measures sugars effect on blood insulin level. In general carbs that cause a low insulin response should be the primary carbs of choice like vegetables, fibers, and certain fruits that have minimal or zero effect on insulin, which happen to be very healthy as well.

How Good, Carbs, Proteins, and Fat Promote Health

Good carbs, proteins, and fat promote health by decreasing heart disease risk, reducing insulin levels, lowering triglyceride levels, and raising HDL good cholesterol. This nutritional way of managing insulin improves the ratio of triglycerides to HDL, also a good risk indicator of heart disease. A high triglyceride to LDL ratio will increase risks up to 16 times more according to Dr J. Michael Gaziano of Harvard Medical School. Also the lowering of triglycerides will reduce the formation of bad LDL-b cholesterol, (the dense problem causing cholesterol), as opposed to LDL-a cholesterol, (the light harmless cholesterol).

Similarly, eliminating bad carbs and controlling insulin will inhibit the formation of trans-fatty acids, which is linked to bad LDL cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, lower HDL good cholesterol, and insulin resistance. The only good trans-fat is zero trans-fat, according to the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine. The primary sources of trans-fats are, baked goods, cakes, cookies, crackers, deep-fried foods, doughnuts, fast food, French fries, granolas, margarines, muffins, and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. So by promoting good carbs and eliminating the bad, many life-threatening diseases can be minimized or avoided.

Like-wise good carbs, proteins, fats, and exercise lowers hypertension or high blood pressure risks by lowering insulin levels, which allow the kidneys to release excess salt and water, thereby dropping blood pressure.

In addition, by eliminating bad carbs like wheat and refined grains, which turn into sugar quickly, and seem to be related to many food allergies or sensitivities, this will vastly improve your health. According to Dr. James Braly, gluten insensitivities may affect tens of millions of Americans. Another prominent doctor in this field, Dr. Joseph Mercola, believes that grains, starches, and sweets trigger a hormonal cycle of sugar addiction, weight gain, and diabetes. Numerous studies link high glycemic load carbs with heart disease and diabetes. (See Part One, Insulin & Part Two, Sugar).

So by lowering bad carbs, reducing refined sugars, flours, and grains and exercising overall health can be greatly improved.

Part Four, Insulin, Good Carbs, Enzymes, Proteins, & Weight Loss

By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer

So after reading Parts One, Two, and Three about insulin, it’s interaction with sugar, and influence on health, you can begin to see the relationship between them and a developing pattern. The next natural progression of the relationship leads to Part Four, insulin’s effect on weight loss.

The Two Weight Loss Theories

There are two basic theories of weight loss, one is the Calorie Count Theory and the second is the Chemical Reaction Theory. The Calorie Count Theory, also called the Thermodynamic Theory, says that If you consume less calories than you burn off then you’ll lose weight! Or if you consume more calories than you burn off then you’ll gain weight! Essentially it’s mathematical, fifteen hundred calories eaten vs. one thousand calories burned off equals a five hundred calorie deficit, thus causing a imbalance, or weight gain.

Whereas the Chemical Reaction Theory, called the Energy Balance Theory, says that everything you do involves a chemical reaction, muscle movement, eating, digestion, energy expenditure, insulin release, sugar utilization, fat formation, fat loss, hormonal response, metabolic rate, etc. Essentially every cells, organs, blood, muscles, amino acids, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, genes, or body function is a result of some chemical reaction or response. By knowing and understanding this you can attain better health and weight management.

How Good Carbs, Enzymes, Fat Cells, and Proteins, Promote Weight Loss

First of all, good carbs produce less insulin but allow glucagon, a hormone that responds to protein, enabling fat to be released from storage sites to be burned as energy. Likewise, by controlling or reducing insulin levels, carnitine is not suppressed, the amino acid that escorts fat into cells, so it can be converted into a burnable fuel.

There are two other important enzymes that are essential for fat-storage or fat-release, lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase. Lipoprotein lipase is stimulated by insulin, and stores fat by breaking down triglycerides in the blood stream and putting the fatty acids in fat cells, making you fatter. Where as the hormone sensitive lipase, is stimulated by glucagon, which pulls the fatty acids out of the fat cells and releases it into the blood stream to be used as energy for exercise, making you leaner. So, insulin stimulates lipoprotein lipase and inhibits hormone sensitive lipase, causing weight gain. Glucagon inhibits lipoprotein lipase and stimulates hormone sensitive lipase, causing weight loss.

Actually, fat cells try and protect themselves to stay fat by releasing protective hormones, which make weigh loss more difficult. The hormones estrogen and resistin are two of these. The greater the amount of fat cells, the greater the amount of resistin released into the body. Resistin seems to promote insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol, and inflammation.

In addition, fat cells release another substance called tumor necrosis factor (TNF-Alpha 1), that help destroy tumors, but in the circulatory system it inhibits insulin from lowering blood sugar. So the pancreas will secrete more insulin to correct this, thus making weight loss more difficult. As fat cells try to protect their existence, if you lower your carb intake you’ll lower the amount of fat protecting hormones in your blood stream. This will reduce the amount of fat in fat cells, putting them out of business, and promoting weight loss.

Insulin-resistance causes cells to stop making insulin receptors, that are responsible for putting sugar and fat into cells, referred to as down-regulation. There is so much insulin that the cells stop sending out receptors. By bringing insulin down with low or good carbs, weight loss begins, and the cells start to bring back the insulin receptors. Thus allowing sugar and fat to be transported back into their cells to be used as fuel, called up-regulation. Up-regulation is an indication that the cells are becoming more insulin sensitive, which improves as you lose weight.

Since protein has minimal effect on insulin release but more on glucagon, weight loss results, including an increased metabolic rate. Protein consumption raises metabolic rate through increased HCL secretion and elevated body heat. This process, called thermogenesis, often lasts several hours after digestion. Also, when protein is consumed the intestines secrets a hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK) which tells the brain when you are full, which takes about 20 minutes. The CCK hormone recognizes protein and fat very well but not carbohydrates, which makes it very easy to over eat carbs.

Interestingly, up to the first thirty grams of protein from the daily intake may be used to help detoxify cells, the next thirty plus grams may help the immune system, and additional metabolic functions. For women and weight loss, protein intake is crucial, fifty grams taken before noon, will significantly enhance and increase their fat loss.

In summary, controlling insulin is the primary goal of good carb, protein, and fat eating. The end result being, improved health and weight loss, particularly fat loss. By controlling insulin you control your blood sugar, which is aided immensely by exercise. Remember up to 80% of blood glucose is stored in muscles so it’s a key component to promote insulin sensitivity and prevent insulin resistance.

My tag line is ‘Train Smart, Safe, and Results Driven’ but I will end by saying ‘Eat Smart, Healthy, and Insulin Control Driven’!