By James Walker CCS, STM, BioSig, Master Trainer
Training principles of exercise science con’t…
10. Overload and Progressive Loading – neuromuscular adaptation occurs as a result of progressive amounts of overload or in other words your body adapts to progressive small amounts of stress (fictitious Greek wrestler Milo carrying the calf until it’s a full grown bull).
· This adaptation is optimal when the progression of stress or overload is gradual and in small increments of 1-5% of the working intensity level (also called the Kaizen Principle of constant and never ending improvement by increasing in small increments over a long period of time).
11. Over Training - is caused by constant training that does not allow adequate time for recovery, regeneration, or super compensation to occur.
· Symptoms may include irritability, increase in injury, healing time, resting heart rate, normal blood pressure, illness, change in mood and appetite, decrease in immune system and performance.
· In addition to excessive inflammation, scar tissue formation, over compensation of other body parts, soft tissue strain and tear, bone fractures, and a weakened level of strength and conditioning.
· Example-scar tissue, traps or hamstring or calve, get volunteer
12. Periodization or Periodized Training - is a pre-planed training plan, which consists of short or long-term cycles (days vs. weeks vs. months), with changes in the workout at regular intervals.
· By manipulating your training variables, such as variations in exercises, reps, sets, and weight load intensities you will maximize your progress and motivation, and help to prevent plateaus, injuries, and over-training.
13. Posture, Stability, and Synergist Muscles – are muscles that assist the primary (larger) muscles by helping to hold a position to achieve the desired action. This help is called synergist.
· e.g., when sprinting the ankle dorsi- flexor muscles and the toe extensor muscles put the foot in the correct position prior to the foot strike.
· The synergist may also assist in achieving a particular action.
· e.g; in elbow flexion the arm biceps may get assistance from the forearm brachioradialis muscle.
· Often these muscles are the smaller muscles and/or the secondary actions of neighboring muscles.
14. Reflex Inhibition –when a muscle is injured by repetitive use, trauma, faulty motor patterns, imbalances, or scar tissue, the central nervous system shuts down the neural drive to the muscle (turns off the muscle) to protect it from further injury.
15. Rep and Set variation – rep and set ranges should be varied for each training cycle (2-4 weeks for advance trainees, 5-8 weeks for experienced trainees, 9-12 weeks for intermediate trainees, and 13-16 weeks for beginners).
· This will allow total muscle and strength development and will reduce overuse syndromes.
· For example a muscle hypertrophy workout cycle: cycle One - 6 reps x 6 sets; cycle Two - 12 reps x 3 sets; cycle Three - 8 reps x 5 sets; and cycle Four - 10 reps x 4 sets.
· For example relative strength or power workout cycle: cycle One - 5 reps x 5 sets; cycle Two - 2 reps x 8 sets; cycle Three - 4 reps x 6 sets; and cycle Four - 1 reps x 10 sets.
· The rep ranges should be based on your objectives, whether for relative strength and power or for hypertrophy strength or for muscle endurance, whichever need is the priority.
· The set ranges will help determine and influence the conditioning of the muscle fibers trained.
‘Train Safe, Smart, & Results Driven’